Amazon Web Services (AWS) has revolutionized the way that businesses manage their IT infrastructure and applications. With AWS, organizations can quickly and easily deploy applications in the cloud, without the need for expensive hardware, software, and networking equipment. AWS offers a variety of services that help businesses meet their high availability and disaster recovery requirements. Three key concepts that are essential for planning and implementing availability strategies in the AWS cloud are Regions, Availability Zones and edge locations.
AWS Regions are geographically independent sets of AWS resources. Currently, AWS operates in 31 geographic regions worldwide, with more coming online all the time. These regions are distributed around the world and are divided into five main areas: North America, South America, Europe, the Middle East and Africa, Asia Pacific and Australia. Currently, there are 7 regions in North America, 11 regions are located in Europe, the Middle East and Africa, 1 region is located in South America, 12 regions in Asia-Pacific and China.
Each AWS Region is separate from the others in every way imaginable. They have distinct physical locations, network infrastructures, and management systems, and do not share any data replication or other resources. This independence provides greater flexibility in designing and deploying applications and offers redundancy and disaster recovery options. For instance, Airbnb uses AWS Regions to ensure that its platform is always available to its millions of users. Airbnb leverages AWS load balancing and auto-scaling services to distribute traffic across multiple regions, ensuring that its platform can handle spikes in traffic and maintain availability even during regional outages. Another example is Slack, Slack uses AWS Regions to store user data and messages, and to process real-time messaging between users. Multiple Regions allow Slack to scale their platform to support millions of users worldwide.
When choosing an AWS Region, there are several factors to consider. One important factor is the proximity of the region to your end-users. If your application caters to users in a specific geographic location, it may make sense to select a region that is closer to them to reduce latency. Another factor is the cost of resources in the region. Prices can vary depending on the region, so it's important to compare prices before choosing a region. Also, keep in mind that not all AWS services are available in each region. Additionally, regulatory and legal considerations should be taken into account when selecting a region. Certain regions may be subject to specific laws or regulations that could impact your application.
Selecting a specific region can also affect compliance requirements. For instance, if your application is subject to data protection laws like GDPR, you may need to ensure that data is stored and processed in specific regions to comply with those laws. AWS provides a compliance program that enables customers to run workloads subject to strict regulatory requirements.
Although building a system that spans two regions is an option, most system requirements can be met when operating within a single region. Even within a single region, geographic isolation can be achieved to meet high availability and disaster recovery needs. This is because each region consists of multiple locations called Availability Zones.
There are seven regions in North America. And each of these regions consists of at least a few Availability Zones (or AZs for short).
Availability Zones are separate physical locations that are designed to be isolated from failures in other Availability Zones and provide low-cost, low-latency network connectivity to other Availability Zones in the same region. Think of them as separate data centers connected by a high-speed fiber network and physically isolated from each other. For example,
us-east-1, which is physically in Northern Virginia. It's Amazon's first region, so it has the largest number of availability zones — you have us-east-1a, b, c, and so on and so forth. It's actually several data center buildings in that location.
These availability zones, as the name implies, are intended for use in High Availability strategies. A local disaster such as a fire, flood, tornado or other physical disturbance that occurs in one Availability Zone will not affect the other zones. For example, Netflix uses AWS Availability Zones to ensure that its streaming service is always available to its millions of users. Netflix uses AWS load balancing and auto-scaling services to distribute traffic across multiple availability zones, and its applications are designed to run across multiple availability zones to ensure high availability.
So from an availability perspective, the first level of availability for your application is to use servers or services in multiple availability zones.
In addition to Availability Zones, AWS also provides Edge locations that offer unique benefits for applications that require high-bandwidth content delivery to end-users. Edge locations are essentially small subsets of Amazon services that are located closer to customers, enabling greater elasticity and improved performance.
One of the most common use cases for Edge locations is to reduce latency for end-users by hosting high-bandwidth content, such as streaming video, closer to them. AWS's CloudFront service is designed for this purpose, and it can cache static content, like video, to improve content distribution and overall performance. Other services available at Edge locations include Route53 for DNS routing, Shield for security, and WAF for web application firewall security. Additionally, Lambda can also run at the Edge, which opens up new possibilities for edge computing and new scenarios, particularly for IoT applications.
Two examples of companies using AWS Edge locations are Twitch and Peloton. Twitch uses AWS CloudFront and other edge location services to improve the delivery of live-streaming video content to its global audience. By caching content at edge locations closer to viewers, Twitch is able to reduce latency and improve the quality of the viewing experience. Peloton uses AWS Edge locations to stream high-quality video content to its connected fitness equipment and mobile applications. By using edge locations, Peloton is able to provide low-latency video streaming, which is critical for ensuring a seamless and engaging experience for its users.
It's essential to verify the services available at the specific location you're considering, since not all AWS services are available at all Edge locations. AWS has made many new services available at Edge locations, including those that support IoT scenarios.
While using Edge locations can offer benefits such as reduced latency and improved application performance, there are trade-offs to consider. For instance, Edge locations can be more expensive than traditional regions, so it's important to carefully evaluate the cost-benefit of using them. Security is another concern, as Edge locations may be more vulnerable to security threats due to their proximity to end-users.
In terms of architecture, Edge locations can be used in combination with other AWS services like load balancing and auto-scaling to ensure high availability and scalability. For example, AWS CloudFront can be used with AWS Elastic Load Balancing to distribute traffic across multiple regions and Availability Zones.